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Figure 5. Sampling approach used for the analysis of soils and vegetation on 41 pingos in northern Alaska. The concentric lines are topographic isoline of a 12-m high pingo. Each pingo was sampled at the seven microsites (black dots): (1) ENE wind-exposed, (2) summit (usually site of animal dens and bird perches), (3) dry leeward side above the snowbank, (4) middle of snowbank on leeward side (well drained), (5) bottom of snowbank at leeward base of pingo (poorly drained), (6) south slope, (7) north slope. Sites 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 formed a toposequence (Walker MD 1990).