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The thick mats of fruticose lichens that dominated much of the landscape in the southern portion of St. Matthew Island prior to the introduction of reindeer had been greatly depleted by reindeer grazing when vegetation plots were established there (Station #2) in early August 1957. Only fragments of fractured lichens and moss remained on the ground surface in the depressions between the dark green willow hummocks. Photo: 1957. D.R. Klein.